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ディスカッション論点要約-2015年度センター試験第3問C

ディスカッション論点要約問題です。
第3問Bと同様に、こちらもパラグラフリーディングを理解していれば迅速かつ正確に解答可能です。
というのも、そもそも要約というのは英文の要点をまとめたものなので、多くの場合、その過程で具体性が排除されます。
ましてや、この問題では1パラグラフの内容が1文にまとめられます。
したがって、抽象部分だけ読めば答えられてしまうことも多いのです。

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では、早速解いていきましょう。

 

 

C 次の会話は、「迷信」をテーマとして、日本のある大学において行われた公開講座でのやりとりの一部である。
   32        34   に入れるのに最も適当なものを、それぞれ下の①~④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

 

Moderator: The title of today's
discussion is “Superstitions – what they are, and why people believe in them.”
Our guest speakers are Joseph Grant, a university professor who lives here in
Japan, and Lily Nelson, a visiting professor from Canada. Joseph, can you
explain what a superstition is?

 

Joseph: Superstitions are
beliefs for which there is no obvious rational basis. For example, there are
various dates and numbers that people are superstitious about. In many places,
“Friday the 13th” is thought to be unlucky, and here in Japan, 4 and 9 are also
considered unlucky. In contrast, 7 is known as “Lucky 7.” A superstitious
person believes that actions such as choosing or avoiding certain numbers can
influence future events even though there is no direct connection between them.
Believing in superstitions is one of the ways humans can make sense of a set of
unusual events which cause someone to feel lucky or unlucky. This seems to have
been true throughout history, regardless of race or cultural background.

 

Moderator: So, it
is your view that    32   .

 

superstitions are rationally based on certain dates and numbers

superstitions can be used to explain strange happenings around us

superstitious people believe race and culture are related to luck

superstitious people tend to have identical beliefs regarding history

 

Joseph: That's right.
Superstitions tend to come from a combination of primitive belief systems and
coincidence – things that happen by chance.

 

Moderator: Could
you tell us more about that?

 

Joseph: A primitive belief
system develops from the natural human tendency to look for patterns in the
world around us. Noticing patterns allows us to learn things quickly. However,
sometimes chance or coincidental events are mistaken for a pattern, like
passing a series of tests using the same pencil every time. The pencil is
unrelated to passing the tests, but becomes a “lucky” pencil because of the
coincidental connection. So, we may come to believe that one event causes
another without any natural process linking the two events. I experienced this
myself when I was called “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man” by Japanese friends. By
coincidence, I was present on occasions when it was raining and so gained a
“rainy reputation.” Rationally speaking, we know that nobody can make rain fall
from the sky, but our primitive belief system, combined with coincidence,
creates a superstition around the “Rain-man.”

 

Moderator: How
interesting! So, you are saying that    33   .

 

an “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man" causes rain to fall from the sky

coincidental events or chance patterns can create superstitions

looking for patterns is an unnatural action for humans

primitive belief systems create coincidental events

 

Moderator: How
about you, Lily? Do you agree with Joseph?

 

Lily: Yes, I do, especially
regarding the notion of coincidence or chance. In an attempt to better
understand human behavior, an American psychologist conducted a famous
experiment called “Superstition in the Pigeon” on a group of hungry birds. The
pigeons were in cages and a feeding machine automatically delivered small
amounts of food at regular time intervals. The psychologist observed that the
pigeons began to repeat the specific body movements that they had been making
whenever the food was delivered. He believed that the pigeons were trying to
influence the machine to deliver food by their repeated movements. He assumed
that we humans also do the same and try to influence future events by
performing non-logical actions. Superstitious humans, just like the
“superstitious” pigeons, associate an action with an outcome even though there
is no logical connection

 

Moderator: So, that
psychologist thought from the experiment that    34   .

 

pigeons and humans both perform superstitious actions

pigeons and humans both tend to influence machines

the pigeons knew when the food would be delivered

the pigeons' repeated actions influenced the food delivery

 

Lily: Yes, that's
exactly right.

Moderator: Thank you, Joseph
and Lily, for sharing your knowledge on superstitions and why people are
superstitious. Let's take a quick break here before we move on with the
discussion.

 









































































































 

(解答・解説)

いかがでしたか?それなりに長い文章なので、どこが重要でどこが重要じゃないかを意識して読まないと時間がとられるパートだと思います。

 

Moderator: The title of today's
discussion is “Superstitions – what they are, and why people believe in them.”
Our guest speakers are Joseph Grant, a university professor who lives here in
Japan, and Lily Nelson, a visiting professor from Canada. Joseph, can you
explain what a superstition is?

導入部分です。ディスカッションのテーマが紹介されます。私は過激派なのでここも読み飛ばしますが、本来は読んでおいた方がいいです。

以下、抽象部分を赤字、具体部分を青字にすることで、パラグラフ構造を視覚化していきます。先述したように第三問Cは要約問題なので赤字部分を読むだけで解けてしまうことも多いです。

 

 

Joseph: Superstitions are beliefs for which there is no obvious rational basis.
For example, there are various
dates and numbers that people are superstitious about. In many places, “Friday
the 13th” is thought to be unlucky, and here in Japan, 4 and 9 are also
considered unlucky. In contrast, 7 is known as “Lucky 7.” A superstitious
person believes that actions such as choosing or avoiding certain numbers can
influence future events even though there is no direct connection between them.
Believing in superstitions is one of the ways humans can
make sense of a set of unusual events which cause someone to feel lucky or
unlucky. This seems to have been true throughout history, regardless of race or
cultural background.

青字部分が具体例です。「なんで具体例だとわかるの?」という質問がよくあるので先回りして答えておくと、For example=例えば)というディスコースマーカー(文章の論理関係を明示する記号)があるからです。

 

Moderator: So, it
is your view that    32   .

 

superstitions are rationally based on certain dates and numbers

「迷信は理論的だぜ!」

Superstitions
are beliefs for which there is no obvious rational basis.
と真逆です。間違い。

 

superstitions can be used to explain strange happenings around us

「迷信は、身の周りの変な出来事の説明に使われる」

Believing
in superstitions is one of the ways humans can make sense of a set of unusual
events which cause someone to feel lucky or unlucky.
に一致。正解。

 

superstitious people believe race and culture are related to luck

「迷信を信じるようなやつは、人種や文化が運勢に関係あると信じている」

This seems to have
been true throughout history, regardless of race or cultural background.
を誤読するとこれを選んでしまいます。

 

superstitious people tend to have identical beliefs regarding
history

「迷信を信じちゃうような人たちは、みんな歴史に関して同じ考え方をもつ傾向にあるよね」

英文としてはこれが一番難しいかも。なんとなくこれを選んだ受験生も多そうですね。identical beliefsが「同じ考え方」という意味だとわかったかがポイントです。本文中にThis seems to have been true
throughout history
とありますが、これは「歴史を通してみても迷信信仰はあるよね」ということで、「歴史についての信仰」ではないのでダメです。間違い。

 

 

Joseph: That's right.
Superstitions tend to come from a combination of primitive belief systems and
coincidence – things that happen by chance.

 

Moderator: Could
you tell us more about that?

 

Joseph: A primitive belief system develops from the natural human tendency to look
for patterns in the world around us. Noticing patterns allows us to learn
things quickly. However, sometimes chance or coincidental events are
mistaken for a pattern,
like passing a
series of tests using the same pencil every time. The pencil is unrelated to
passing the tests, but becomes a “lucky” pencil because of the coincidental
connection.
So, we may come to
believe that one event causes another without any natural process linking the
two events.
I
experienced this myself when I was called “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man” by Japanese
friends. By coincidence, I was present on occasions when it was raining and so
gained a “rainy reputation.” Rationally speaking, we know that nobody can make
rain fall from the sky, but our primitive belief system, combined with
coincidence, creates a superstition around the “Rain-man.”

like(具体例のディスコースマーカー)以下のペンシルの話が具体例部分です。さらにI experienced this myself~とあるので、この後に自分の具体的な経験を語り始めると見抜けます。また、However(逆説のディスコースマーカー)やSo(結論のディスコースマーカー)の後に重要なこと(=話者の主張)が書かれることが多い、ということも知っておくと良いです。

 

Moderator: How
interesting! So, you are saying that    33   .


an “Ame-otoko” or “Rain-man" causes rain to fall from the sky

「雨男はマジで雨を降らせるぜ!」

頭おかしいですね。

いや、内容ももちろんおかしいのですが、そもそもこれは具体例の内容なので、そこをまとめても要約にはなりません。間違い。

 

coincidental events or chance patterns can create superstitions

「偶然の出来事は迷信を生み出す」

赤字部分で繰り返されていることですね。正解。

 

looking for patterns is an unnatural action for humans

「規則性を探すことは人間にとって不自然な行動だ」

A
primitive belief system develops from the natural human tendency to look for
patterns in the world around us.
にはnatural human tendency(人間の自然な傾向)とあります。間違い。

 

primitive belief systems create coincidental events

「原始的な信仰体系は偶然の出来事を作り出す」

よくわからなくてこれを選んだ受験生は多そうです。良い選択肢だと思います。A primitive belief system
develops from the natural human tendency to look for patterns in the world
around us.
So, we may come to believe that one event causes another
without any natural process linking the two events.
を読んでみて、なにがおかしいかわかりますか?そうです。因果関係が逆なのです。primitive beliefcoincidental eventsを生むのではなく、coincidental eventsprimitive beliefを生むのです。よって間違い。

 

 

Moderator: How
about you, Lily? Do you agree with Joseph?

 

Lily: Yes,
I do, especially regarding the notion of coincidence or chance.
In an attempt to better understand human behavior, an
American psychologist conducted a famous experiment called “Superstition in the
Pigeon” on a group of hungry birds. The pigeons were in cages and a feeding
machine automatically delivered small amounts of food at regular time intervals.
The psychologist observed that the pigeons began to repeat the specific body
movements that they had been making whenever the food was delivered. He
believed that the pigeons were trying to influence the machine to deliver food
by their repeated movements.
He assumed that we
humans also do the same and try to influence future events by
performing non-logical actions. Superstitious humans, just like the
“superstitious” pigeons, associate an action with an outcome even though there
is no logical connection.

鳩の実験がどうこう言っていますが、要するに「鳩も人も迷信めいた行動をする」というのが趣旨です。「鳩も人も」というのは、alsoというディスコースマーカーがあることからわかりますね。

 

Moderator: So, that
psychologist thought from the experiment that    34   .


pigeons and humans both perform superstitious actions

「ハトも人間も迷信めいた行動をする」

He
assumed that we humans also do the same and try to influence
future events by performing non-logical actions.
とあるのでこれで正解ですね。おしまい。

 

pigeons and humans both tend to influence machines

「ハトも人間も機械に影響を及ぼす」

具体例部分を読んでいれば即座に間違いだと気付きますし、読んでいなくても「人間とハトの共通点」という趣旨に全く触れられていないので間違い、と判断できます。

 

the pigeons knew when the food would be delivered

「ハトはいつ食事が届けられるか知っていたよ」

パラグラフの要点は「人間とハトの共通点」です。具体例部分を読んでその真偽を吟味するまでもなく、ハトにしか触れていないので要約として不適切だと判断できます。

 

the pigeons' repeated actions influenced the food delivery

「ハトの反復的な行動は、食事の配達に影響を与えたよ」

③と同じです。ハトにしか触れていないので不適切。

 

Lily: Yes, that's
exactly right.

Moderator: Thank you, Joseph
and Lily, for sharing your knowledge on superstitions and why people are
superstitious. Let's take a quick break here before we move on with the
discussion.

なんかごちゃごちゃ言ってるけど読まない。

 

 

解説は以上です。 以下に重要表現を強調した本文を再掲しておきます。

語彙の補強に役立ててください。

 

Moderator: The title of today's
discussion is “Superstitions – what they are,
and why people believe in them.” Our guest speakers are Joseph Grant, a
university professor who lives here in Japan, and Lily Nelson, a visiting
professor from Canada. Joseph, can you explain what a superstition is?

superstition 迷信

 

Joseph: Superstitions are beliefs for which there is no obvious
rational basis
. For example, there are various
dates and numbers that people are superstitious about. In many places, “Friday
the 13th” is thought to be unlucky, and here in Japan, 4 and 9 are also
considered unlucky. In contrast, 7 is known as “Lucky 7.” A superstitious
person believes that actions such as choosing or avoiding
certain numbers can influence future events even though there is no direct connection between
them. Believing in superstitions is one of the ways humans can make sense of a set of unusual events which cause
someone to feel lucky or unlucky. This seems to have been true throughout
history, regardless of race or cultural
background.

belief 信仰

obvious 明らかな

rational basis 理論的根拠

various 様々な

avoid~ ~を避ける

influence~ ~に影響を与える

even though… …だけれど

make sense of~ ~を理解する

regardless of~ ~に関係なく

 

Moderator: So, it is your view
that superstitions can be used to explain strange happenings around us.

 

Joseph: That's right.
Superstitions tend to come from a combination of primitive
belief systems and coincidence – things that happen by
chance
.

primitive 原始的な

by chance 偶然に

 

Moderator: Could
you tell us more about that?

 

Joseph: A primitive belief
system develops from the natural human tendency to
look for patterns in the world around us. Noticing patterns allows us to learn
things quickly. However, sometimes chance or coincidental
events are mistaken for a pattern, like passing
a series of tests using the same pencil every time. The pencil is unrelated to passing the tests, but becomes a
“lucky” pencil because of the coincidental connection. So, we may come to
believe that one event causes another without any natural process linking the
two events. I experienced this myself when I was called “Ame-otoko” or
“Rain-man” by Japanese friends. By coincidence, I was
present on occasions
when it was raining and so gained a “rainy reputation.” Rationally speaking, we know that nobody
can make rain fall from the sky, but our primitive belief system, combined with
coincidence, creates a superstition around the “Rain-man.”

tendency to~ ~する傾向

coincidental 偶然の

mistake A for B ABと間違える

be unrelated to~ ~に無関係である

be present 出席している

on occasion(s) 時々

reputation 評判

 

Moderator: How interesting! So,
you are saying that coincidental events or chance patterns can create
superstitions.

Moderator: How
about you, Lily? Do you agree with Joseph?

Lily: Yes, I do, especially regarding the notion of
coincidence or chance. In an attempt to better
understand human behavior, an American psychologist conducted
a famous experiment called “Superstition in the Pigeon
on a group of hungry birds. The pigeons were in cages and a feeding machine
automatically delivered small amounts of food at
regular time intervals
. The psychologist observed that the pigeons began
to repeat the specific body movements that they had been making whenever the
food was delivered. He believed that the pigeons were trying to influence the
machine to deliver food by their repeated movements. He assumed that we humans
also do the same and try to influence future events by performing non-logical
actions. Superstitious humans, just like the “superstitious” pigeons, associate an action with
an outcome even though there is no logical
connection

regarding~ ~に関して

notion 考え

in an attempt to~ ~しようと試みて

conduct~ ~(実験や調査など)を行う

pigeon ハト

at regular time intervals 一定時間ごとに

associate A with B ABを関連付ける

outcome 結果

 

Moderator: So, that
psychologist thought from the experiment that pigeons and humans both perform
superstitious actions.

Lily: Yes, that's
exactly right.

Moderator: Thank you, Joseph
and Lily, for sharing your knowledge on superstitions and why people are
superstitious. Let's take a quick break here before we move
on with
the discussion.















































































































































































































































































move on with~ ~に移行する

以上です。

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殺さずの誓いを立てるので、学人の続きを描いてください。

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ひょーどるさんは社会の選択はどういう基準で決めました?理系なら倫政か地理が一般的だと思いますけど

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