Articles

1988 和訳

【要約】
この年は出題されませんでした。

【和訳】
A
 Gandhi had a prolonged formal education, finally qualifying as a lawyer, but he received little formal instruction in those questions with which he became increasingly concerned, questions of moral and political philosophy and of religion. It was imprisonment that provided Gandhi with one of the best opportunities for further reading. Indeed, for those entering the nationalist movement in the 1920s, prison was in a sense the nearest they came to going to a university. Gandhi was clearly widely read. Certainly no other influential Indian intellectual was as familiar as Gandhi was with the religious and philosophical texts of the classical Indian tradition as well as the writings of daring Western moralists of the nineteenth century.

nationalist movement:直訳すると国家主義運動。1920年代のインドの運動なので、独立運動と訳すのがベスト。
come near (to) ~ing:~しそうになる
widely read:博識である(形容詞的に用いる)

Indeed, for those (entering the nationalist movement in the 1920s,) prison was (in a sense) the nearest (they came to going to a university).
後半は、prison was the nearestとthey came near to going to a universityが関係代名詞thatでくっついている。そしてthatを省略。
prison was the nearest that they came to going to a university
ここで、prisonが無冠詞であり、不可算名詞であることに注意。牢獄という物ではなく投獄という概念を表している。
(そのため、「the nearestのあとにplaceを補える」という解説を見かけるが、これは間違いである。)
直訳すると「投獄は彼らが大学に通うことに最も近いものであった」となる。

Gandhi was clearly widely read.
これは難しい。widely readで形容詞的に「博識だ」という意味になる。人を修飾するときの用法。

実際、1920年代に独立運動に参加した者にとって、ある意味では投獄は大学に通うこととほとんど同じだった。(そのため、)明らかにガンディーは博識であった。


B
 We are prisoners of the sense we have about the world because of our size, and rarely recognize how different the world must appear to small animals. Since our relative surface area is so small at our large size we are ruled by the forces of gravity acting upon our weight. But gravity means next to nothing to very small animals with high surface-to-volume ratios; they live in a world of surface forces and judge the pleasures and dangers of their surroundings in ways foreign to our experience. An insect performs no miracle in walking up a wall or upon the surface of a pond; the small force of gravity pulling it down or under is easily overcome by surface forces which act to keep it in position. Throw an insect off the roof and it floats gently down as the forces of friction from the air acting upon its surface overcome the weak influence of gravity.

next to ~:ほとんど~
surface-to-volume ratios:体積に対する表面積の割合
surface forces:表面力(物理用語で、固体の表面に働く吸着力のことらしいです。知らんかった。)

But gravity means next to nothing to very small animals (with high surface-to-volume ratios)
they live in a world of surface forces and judge the pleasures and dangers of their surroundings {in ways (foreign to our experience)}.
最後の部分では、foreign to our experienceがwaysを後ろから修飾している。いわゆる後置修飾。

しかし、体積に対する表面積の割合が高い微小な動物にとっては、重力はほとんど意味が無い。そういった動物は、表面力の世界で生活し、我々の経験とはかけ離れた方法で自身の環境の快適度や危険度を判断しているのだ。
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