Articles

1986 要約、和訳

【要約】80-100
 Our early ancestors had little conception of the difference between human beings and the animal creation. To them all that had life was animated by a spirit, and the form of the enclosing body made little difference. Primitive man sees nothing impossible in the story that his tribe is descended from a beast or a bird; the lady in the fairy-tale who married a bear or a snake was doing nothing particularly improbable. As knowledge advanced, these animal husbands became enchanted men who regained their true shape at last, but this is a later modification to suit later ideas. The conception of "lower animals" is a modern notion based on the gradual recognition of the essential difference between man and the other inhabitants of this world. Early man saw them as creatures endowed with special gifts and obeying their own laws; often they appeared to him not less but more intelligent than himself. Our fairy-tales, with their helpful animals, talking-birds and wise reptiles, are fossilized remains of a period when animals took equal place with man and were sometimes messengers or servants of the hidden gods. So today it may be seen that a great many of our superstitions about birds and animals are based on their supposed wisdom, cunning or magical powers rather than their inferiority in the scheme of things.

animate~:~に生命を吹き込む、~を活気づける
fossilize~:~を化石にする、~を固定化する、~を時代遅れにする

最近ようやく要約の手法が自分の中で確立されてきました。(ダジャレじゃないですよ。)
「日本語で要素を本文登場順に箇条書きする→論理構成を考えてまとめ直す」というものです。
やってみましょう。

日本語で要素を本文登場順に箇条書きする(実際に解くときはここまで丁寧に書きません)
・先祖は人間と他の動物に大きな違いはないと考えていた
・お伽話にもそういうことが書いてある
・下等動物という考え方は知識が発達した近代のものだ
・先祖は他の動物を特別な能力と独自の法則をもつものとみなしていた
・お伽話にも人間と同等の地位をもつ優れた動物が登場する 
・だから多くの動物の迷信はその狡猾さや魔法の力に基づく

論理構成を考えてまとめ直す
人間以外の動物が下等だという考えは知識が発達した近代のものであり、先人は他の動物も人間と対等なものだと考えていた。そのため、現在でも多くの動物の優れた能力を描写したおとぎ話や迷信が見られる。(95字)



【和訳】
A
 We all agree that the aim of education is to fit the child for life; however, there are as many opinions as to how that fitting is to be done as there are men to hold them. For example, fully half of our teachers cannot see that imagination is the root of all civilization. Like love, imagination may very fairly be said to 'make the world go round,' but, as it works out of sight, it is given very little credit for what it performs.

(Like love,) imagination may (very fairly) be said to 'make the world go round,' but, as it works out of sight, it is given very little credit (for what it performs).

give A credit for B:AのBという功績を評価する
 
愛と同じように、想像力は「世界を回しているのだ」と、とても当たり前に言われるかもしれないが、想像力は目に見えないところで働くので、その働きの功績がほとんど評価されていないのだ。


B
 Most boys have a natural inclination to admire their fathers, and a cultural gap between father and son is painful for both. The middle-class father who at nights studies the encyclopedia in order to be able to answer his son's questions makes us smile a little, but we ought to admire him. For such fathers this may be an introduction to life long education. In an environment which values knowledge for its own sake he will not put down the encyclopedia with a sigh of relief when the son has grown up, but will want more of it.

inclination:傾向

In an environment (which values knowledge for its own sake) he will not put down the encyclopedia (with a sigh of relief) when the son has grown up, but (he) will want more (knowledge) of it(=encyclopedia).

知識そのものを求めて知識を価値あるものとする環境においては、息子が大人になったとき、父親は安堵の溜息をもらして百科事典を置くのではなく、より多くの知識を求めるだろう。


C
 Between historical events and the historian there is a constant interplay. The historian tries to impose on these events some kind of rational pattern: how they happened and even why they happened. No historian starts with a blank mind as a jury is supposed to do. He does not go to documents with a childlike innocence of mind and wait patiently until they dictate conclusions to him. Quite the contrary.

No historian starts with a blank mind as a jury is supposed to do.
He does not go to documents (with a childlike innocence of mind) and wait (patiently) until they(=documents) dictate conclusions to him.

interplay:相互作用
jury:陪審員
dictate A to B:BにAを口述する、BにAという指示を出す

does notのnotの範囲に注意。go to documentsだけでなくwaitも否定するのかどうかの判断が必要。
つまり、「文書を読まないで待つ」のか、「文書も読まないし待ちもしない」のかを判別しないとアカン。
前文に陪審員のようなことはしないとあるので、歴史家は判決を待たないとわかる。よって後者だとわかる。
(というか、実は主語がheなのにwaitが原形な時点で判別可能)

陪審員がそうであることを想定されているように、心を空っぽにして取り掛かる歴史家はいない。歴史家は、子供のように純粋な気持ちで文書を読み、それらが彼に結論を述べるまで辛抱強く待つなどということはしないのだ。
関連記事

コメント

コメントの投稿

非公開コメント