1985 要約、和訳

 All animals are playing a potentially very dangerous game with their environment, a game in which they must make decisions for which the reward is survival and the penalty for a mistake is discomfort or even death. In this game, however, fair play is not to be expected; for, the fact is, it is always rigged in one way or another, and all species cheat in some way.
 Let us consider two extreme cases: first, our own species as an example of an animal in which responses are almost wholly determined by individual experience. I have a small son. The fact that he has survived to the age of two is largely due to considerable care on the part of his normally untidy parents. Since he happened to us, we have learned to clear up. We hide saws and chisels; we lay ladders flat instead of leaving them propped against things; and we shut the garden gate. In short, the boy's opportunities for experiment are kept within limits, so that while he is free to learn by experience, we can be fairly sure that he is not going to hurt himself really badly. As he learns more about the world, we can relax the limits. It is generally accepted that the full treatment takes about twenty years... so we have another eighteen years to go.
 This is one way of rigging the survival game. The other extreme way is to have the right answers to all potentially disastrous experiments fitted in at the outset. For example, any sea anemone knows what is edible and what is not. It will grasp food with its tentacles and cram it into its mouth. It will reject inedible objects and close up when poked. A sea anemone does not learn to do these things; these responses are built in from the outset and they are unaltered by individual experience. You cannot teach anything to a sea anemone; it just does not learn.
edible:fit to be eaten
rig:arrange(an event,etc.)dishonestly for one's own advantage
sea anemone:イソギンチャク

happen to ~:~に(災いなどが)降りかかる→つまり冗談めかして我が子を災い扱いしているんですね。
prop ~:~を支える、立てかける
to go:この先



 To the average Englishman of today Captain Cook is little more than a name. But he is at least that, and, if we except Christopher Columbus and the latest newspaper-hero, there is hardly any other explorer of whom as much can confidently be said.

But he is at least that, and, (if we except Christopher Columbus and the latest newspaper-hero,) there is hardly any other explorer (of whom as much can confidently be said).

there is以降が難しいです。まずは能動態の文で考えてみましょう。
we say much of an explorerとwe say much of Captain Cookを接続詞asでつなぐ。重なる部分は省略。
we say as副詞 much of an explorer /as接続詞 we say much of an Captain Cook.
As much is said of an explorer /as of Captain Cook.
There is hardly any other explorerと上の文を関係代名詞whomでつなぐ。ofはwhichの前に出る。文脈上明らかなのでas of Captain Cookは省略。
There is hardly any other explorer (of whom as much is said as of Captain Cook).

little more than ~:~よりほとんど多くない→ほとんど~であるに過ぎない( more than ~)
except ~:~を除く
say much of ~:~について多く語る


 TV is more suitable for family entertainment than the radio, precisely because it makes so few demands, leaving one with plenty of attention to give to the noisy grandchild or talkative aunt. If the programmes required greater concentration, one would resent the distractions which inevitably attend the family circle. The less demanding the programe, therefore, the more outgoing and sociable everyone is, which makes for a better time for all concerned.

make for ~:~に進む、~に役立つ
all concerned:関係者全員


 "We can't hang around any longer. Do you remember the short cut?" asked Charlotte, coming out of the shop.  "I should hope so --- I've used it often enough."
 They set off briskly, Nicholas, who hoped he knew the way, in the lead, constantly changing the parcel from one arm to the other. Charlotte had to run to keep up with him.

hang around:(あてもなく)ぶらぶらする
in the lead:先頭に立って



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まったく記事とは関係ないのですが、大学受験の際に使用した化学の参考書の中でお勧めのものはありますか? 以前にかなり古い記事で、doシリーズは微妙だけど、何とかはマジでお勧めと書いていた記事があったと思うのですが、何がお勧めだったのか微妙に気になってます。

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1. 日曜ハンターさん あれ??私はDoシリーズ信者ですけど、そんなこと書きましたっけ? あ、有機は確かに微妙かも。 講義本では 理論、無機→DOシリーズ 有機→実況中継 がお勧めですね。 ただ実況中継は油脂と高分子載ってないのが難点です(; ・`д・´)