Articles

1984 要約、和訳

【要約】80~100
 If history is regarded as just the record of the past, it is hard to see any grounds for claiming that it should play any large role in the curriculum of elementary education. The past is the past, and the dead may be safely left to bury their dead. There are too many urgent demands in the present, too many calls over the threshold of the future, to permit the child to become deeply absorbed in what is forever gone by. Not so when history is considered as an account of the forces and forms of social life. Social life we have always with us; the distinction of past and present is indifferent to it. Whether it was lived just here or just there is a matter of slight moment. It is life for all that; it shows the motives which draw men together and push them apart, portrays what is desirable and what is hurtful. Whatever history may be for the scientific historian, for the educator it must be an indirect sociology ―a study of society which reveals its process of becoming and its modes of organization. Existing society is both too complex and too close to the child to be studied. He finds no clues into its labyrinth of detail and can mount no heights from which to get a perspective of its arrangement.
(注)labyrinth:迷宮

an account of the forces and forms of social life:社会生活の影響力や形態についての説明(各所を参照しましたが、このforcesの訳出はバラバラでした。活力とか訳してるとこも。でも辞書見る限りたぶん影響力です。)
for all ~:~にもかかわらず
portray~:~を描く
hurtful:痛ましい(heartfulではないので注意!)

・歴史を単なる過去の記録→初等教育無益
・社会生活についての説明とみる→子どもが間接的に社会を学べる→初等教育有益
この条件分岐をふまえた上で、
・現代社会は複雑かつ身近すぎて子どもが学ぶには適さない
という補足を加えればOKです。

現代社会は複雑かつ身近すぎて子どもが学ぶには適さないが、歴史を単なる過去の記録ではなく社会生活についての説明とみると、それを通して子どもが間接的に社会を学べるため、初等教育での歴史学習は重要だ。



【和訳】
A
 We always assume that an interest in the beauty of Nature is a sign of goodness in a person. It is a strange assumption we make and neither do we understand why, generally speaking, we consider Nature to be beautiful.
 Man is more apt to see beauty in symmetry and ugliness in disorder. Nature, superficially at least, appears to be disorderly. Left alone with Nature, man starts to rearrange what he finds there. He proceeds quite often with some principle of equation in his mind. He is driven by the notion that if he puts something on one side of anything, he ought to put another thing just like it on the other side. Then he calls it beautiful.

Nature, (superficially at least,) appears to be disorderly. (Left alone with Nature,) man starts to rearrange what he finds there. He proceeds (quite often) (with some principle of equation in his mind).

symmetry:対称、調和
Left alone with Nature → (If a man is) left alone with Nature ※分詞構文
principle of equation:均等の原則(equationはsymmetryと対応させて平等ではなく均等などと訳す)
proceed:進む(自動詞) → proceed (to the rearrangement)が省略されていると考える

自然は、少なくとも表面的には法則性がないように見える。自然の前に一人で置かれたとき、人間はそこで見つけたものを整え直そうとし始める。そのとき、多くの場合、心の内にある何らかの均等の原理に沿ってそれを行う。


B
 It always takes time, in my experience, before a journey truly begins. The actual leave-taking, waving goodbye, starting up and so forth is all a confusion, a conflict of different happenings. Only later on, when the journey is really under way, does it actually start. 'Well, off at last' mutters the traveler to himself or any companion close by. The journey has begun.

Only later on, when the journey is really under way, does it actually start. 'Well, off at last' mutters the traveler to himself or any companion (close by).

leave-taking:いとまごい(別れの挨拶のこと)
later on:後で
does it actually start → it starts actually → the jorney starts actually
off at last → (We are) off at last
mutters動詞 the traveler主語 to himself or any other companion → the traveler muttes to himself or any other companion

その後しばらくして、旅が実際には進行中であるという段になって初めて、旅が本当に始まる。旅人は「さあ、遂に出発だ」と独り言をつぶやくか、そばにいる同伴者にささやく。


C
 Our relation to the books we come across in our lives is a mysterious one. Some we fall in love with because they said the right things at the right time; others are lost to us forever because we were not ready for them when they crossed our paths and chance does not bring us into contact with them a second time.

others are lost to us (forever) because we were not ready for them when they crossed our paths and chance does not bring us into contact with them (a second time).

be lost to~:もはや~のものではない
cross one's path:巡りあう
a second time≒for a/the second time:二度目に(副詞句)

巡りあったときに我々の準備ができておらず、その後二度と接触する機会がなく、そのために永遠に縁がなくなる本もある。
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